24. března  2017 v 10:30  rubrika: Title - Historical Series

Concertino per il clavicembalo, violino, viola e basso in G - František Xaver Dušek (ed. Vojtěch Spurný)

Concertino per il clavicembalo, violino, viola e basso - F. X. Dušek (ed. Vojtěch Spurný) - Foto: Nakladatelství ČRo

Concertino per il clavicembalo, violino, viola e basso - F. X. Dušek (ed. Vojtěch Spurný)Foto: Nakladatelství ČRo

Among Czech composers of the second half of the 18th century composing in Bohemia, not abroad, Dušek was undoubtedly one of the most important authors of instrumental music – most important are his orchestral, chamber and piano composition.

He is proved to be the author of 37 symphonies, 20 string quartets, 21 string trios, 49 parthias for brass instruments, 5 serenades, 3 divertimentos, 13 minuets, 9 cembalo concertos, 8 cembalo concertinos, 28 cembalo sonatas for two hands and 7 cembalo sonatas for four hands, 6 cembalo sonatinas and 7 variation cycles. The only authentic vocal composition is 5 songs for children in the collection of 25 songs by V. V. Mašek (1792). Some manuscripts from Pacht’s archive are dated till the 1760s (starting with 1761), many compositions (unfortunately mostly lost or still unfound) are mentioned in Breitkopf’s catalogues from 1771–1787, the youngest is the print of piano sonata from 1796, which means that Dušek’s compositions originated in the period from late Baroque to High Classicism - similarly to e.g. Haydn’s work.  

Dušek’s music language builds on well-mastered foundations of the old Vienna school (Wagenseil) and it reaches a mature classicist Haydn-type expression. We will notice the influence of an Italian-type gallant style (Hasse, Galuppi, Rutini), the influence of Berlin school (J. A. Benda, C. Ph. E. Bach) — especially in slow movements of some sonatas and concertos and Baroque elements appear sometimes. The symphonies consist of three of four movements and the string quartets consist of four movements. Sonata movements reveal classicist structure (although of a smaller scale), the final movements are sometimes an early example of a sophisticated rondo form. Slow parts reveal a breeze of melancholy and emphasized expressiveness. Dušek’s melodical inspiration captures one’s attention also by occasional employment of Czech song melodies.  

It all applies also to cembalo Concertino in G major. Composition incipit is listed in Breitkopf’s catalogues from 1782-1784 , which means that the composition was published in print in the times of cembalo taking over other keyboard instruments – both as concertanto and figured bass instrument. The inscription on the title sheet of the manuscript is not very important since the term “clavicembalo” was used in general for all keyboard stringed instruments, more as a historical situation.  

Taking into account the character of the composition and the number of preserved parts, it is clear that the composition was intended for a quartet with three bowed accompanying instruments. This type of a chamber cembalo concert is known from similar compositions by B. Galuppi, J. Ch. Bach, J. Haydn, K. Ditters from Dittersdorf, J. A. Štěpán etc. However, instead of two violins, Dušek unconventionally uses violin and viola. Since the viola part is at some parts lower than the part marked as “basso“, it seems that the lowest part of the accompanying ensemble was played by 16-foot pitch instrument (perhaps a small double-bass called “basettl“ or violone). When performed on cello, these parts have to be transposed one octave lower in a bass part to avoid a harmonical disbalance. The same problem has to be solved e.g. in Haydn’s divertimentos for a string trio. 

This edition of Concertino per il clavicembalo, violino, viola e basso by František Xaver Dušek is based on the source kept in the Czech Museum of Music under a call number XV E 326. 

Other compositions by František Xaver Dušek pulished in Czech Radio:
Concertino per il clavicembalo, due violini, viola e basso in G
Concerto per il clavicembalo, due corni, due violini, viola e basso in D
Concerto per il clavicembalo, due corni, due violini, viola e basso in Es
Concerto per il clavicembalo, due violini, viola e basso in C 

instrumentationclavicembalo, vno, vla, b
descriptionscore, parts
publ.NoR 356
price320,- CZK

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